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Martha 3, Deane 





A Study Course 


Boys and Young Men 

B. Deane Brink 

Director of Special Activities, Department of Recreation 

and Health, Young Men's Christiaii Association, 

Boston, Mass. 

Paul Smith 

Pastor Daniel Dorchester Memorial 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

Boston, Mass. 

New York: 124 East 28th Street 

London: 47 Paternoster Row, E. C. 


Copyright, 1914, by the 

International Committee of Young Men's 

Christian Associations 





AND Spirit that make him 
AN IDEAL Teacher and 
Leader of Men, what- 
ever IS worthy IN THIS 
BOOK IS dedicated 



It is sometimes said that there are Bibles 
within the Bible — a Bible for youth, a Bible for 
age, a Bible for the sick, a Bible for the well — 
in truth, a Bible suited to the various periods 
and moods of life. All this is another proof of 
the universality of the Great Book. Springing 
from all kinds of life, as it surely does, it comes 
back again to all kinds of life with its peculiarly 
inspiring message. 

And surely we do not read far in the holy 
pages without discovering that there is a boy's 
Bible within the big Bible. Each of us can recall 
the stories that made their appeals to us in our 
boyhood. We were fond of Moses, of Joseph, of 
Daniel, of Samuel, and of that anonymous lad 
who helped Jesus with the miracle of the loaves 
and fishes. These serve as illustrations of the 
fact that the nature of a boy will select a Bible 
from the Bible. Other portions of the record 
wait until the youth arrives at maturity, while 
still others wait to comfort him in his old age. 

Now this book is an effort to make more real 
and helpful certain portions of the Bible, that 
the life of boyhood may be more effectively 
served. Any man who receives letters from his 
son knows well what is his boy's chief inter- 
est at a particular period. Those na'ive epistles 
brim with the news of recent athletic contests. 
When he is at home, the father sees the boy 


eagerly scanning the pages of the morning paper 
to find the result of the games. To the seeing 
parent all this is an indication of the form of 
appeal that may best be made to the boy's heart. 
The wise father and the wise teacher will not 
fail to see the point. 

This volume takes advantage both of the 
nature of the boy and of the nature of the Bible, 
to bring the boy and the Bible into company with 
each other. It introduces the boy to those 
worthies that walk the sacred pages as a kind of 
holy athletic field. Its aim is to make the Bible 
properly human and to make athletics properly 
religious, while, at the same time, appealing to 
the boy in the natural and God-ordained fashion 
of his nature. We may be sure that it can have 
no other effect than to lure youth from fields of 
physical contest on to the place where they can 
wrestle against the rulers of the world-darkness, 
so passing from that bodily exercise which profits 
a little to that spiritual exercise which has the 
promise for both great worlds. 

Edwin H. Hughes. 
Resident Bishop M. E. Church, 
San Francisco, Cal. 


Several years ago it was suggested to a group 
of boys in a high school gymnasium class that 
they ought to take up the study of the Bible. 
The proposition met with cynical indifference. 
It was then suggested that they might like to 
know about an ancient runner who surpassed 
any Marathon record of modern times, beating 
a king and his chariot in a race over a rough 
mountain road in the midst of a blinding storm. 
The interest of the boys was captured, and in 
this form they began to study the biography of 
Elijah. A class on "The Athletes of the Bible" 
was formed and still continues as a Bible study 

The course of studies thus begun has since 
been used in other groups with equal success. 
It presents the men of the Bible from a view- 
point which will capture the boys and young 
men. A teacher cannot have a better point of 
contact than the boy's athletic interest. 

The object of these studies is to show to the 
boys that the men of the Bible are virile and 
their lives are full of stirring interest. The 
Bible is an out-of-doors book. Its people lived 
mostly in the out-of-doors. Their physical 
prowess is noteworthy. Their physical achieve- 
ments equal, if they do not surpass, those of 
modern times. Moreover, Christianity should be 
taught as a religion of health and vigor, which 


expects, by Christ's help, a man's maximum 
physically, mentally and spiritually. 

The lessons are designed to be elastic in the 
time required for teaching. They will fit a 
longer or a shorter session. Perhaps the best 
results will be secured by adapting the material 
under each Roman numeral to a twenty-minute 
study period. 

It is hoped that teachers of boys' and young 
men's classes in Bible schools and in the Young 
Men's Christian Association will find in these 
studies a corrective for the prevailing miscon- 
ception among boys and young men that religion 
is "sissified," that Jesus was effeminate, and 
that a real "man" has a more virile business than 
to serve the Kingdom and the Church. With 
this great mission, the book is prayerfully sent 
on its way. 

B. Deane Brink. 

Paul Smith. 

Boston, Mass., May 1, 1914. 


DAVID, The Stone Thrower: Control 

I. The Athlete. 
II. His Training. 

III. The Event. 

ELIJAH, The Long Distance Runner: Endurance. 

IV. An Out-of-doors Man. 
V. The Marathon. 

VI. The Endurance Walk. 

SAMSON, The Weight Lifter: Strength. 

VII. A Man with a Big Chance. 
VIII. The Tragedy of Wasted Strength. 

PETER, The Oarsman: Leadership. 

IX. The Oarsman. 
X. The Leader. 

PAUL, The Swimmer and Sailor: Pluck. 

XI. Paul's Athletic Sympathies. 
XII. Some of Paul's Plucky Achievements. 

JESUS, The Perfectly Balanced Personality: Bal- 

XIII. The Physique of Jesus. 

XIV. Balance. 


"Connie" Mack's Views on Cigarette Smoking. 

B. Deane Brink: Physiological Effects of Alcohol 
and Tobacco. 

George A. Bellamy: The Moral Value of Play- 

Robert J. Roberts' "Talk on Training." 

City Life and Character Development. 


DAVID, The Stone Thrower 

Study Subject: Control 

Definition: Accurate obedience of the 
muscles to the mind 

Biblical Material: I Samuel 16, 17 

'For the long breath, the deep breath, the breath of the 

heart without care — 
I will give thanks and adore thee, God of the open 

air !" 

— Henry van Dyke. 


1. Description of David which was taken to 

the King. (I Sam. 16:18.) 

(a) Skilled musician. 

(b) A "mighty" man. 

(c) Brave, "valiant." 

(d) A fighter for good things, — "A man of 

(e) "Prudent in matter" — good at head 

(f) A "comely" person — attractive to look 

(g) "The Lord is with him" — a man of fine 

2. Boyhood Life. (I Sam. 16: 11.) 

David as a young man lived a clean and 
wholesome outdoor life, rightly combining 
work and play, responsibility and freedom, 
which will always produce an athletic type 
of manhood. 

3. David must have been a Man of Large and 

Powerful Physique. 

(a) Saul, who was "higher than any of the 
people from his shoulders and upward" (I 
Sam. 9:2) offered him his armor, which 
David "girded on." If the average Israel- 
ite was five feet nine inches, Saul must 
have been six feet six inches, and David 
must have been over six feet tall. 


(b) He wielded the giant's sword with 
apparent ease. (I Sam. 17:51.) 

(c) In his shepherd days he killed a "lion" 
and a "bear." (I Sam. 17: 36.) 

(d) His exploits in escaping Saul's efforts 
to kill him would have been possible only 
to a man of great endurance and superb 
nerve. This story is found in I Samuel 

4. Something More is Required to Produce a 
Winner than Mere Muscle. 

(a) In I Samuel 16:6, 7, it seems that 
David's brother Eliab, from the standpoint 
of "countenance" or "stature," would have 
been chosen king. 

(b) David was chosen king because while "a 
man looketh on the outward appearance, 
God looketh on the heart." David had fine 
qualities of character. 

(c) Often in football an end, like Poe of 
Princeton, whose weight is light, far sur- 
passes in effectiveness a much heavier man. 

(d) Fitzgerald, one of Yale's prominent 
football stars, said he never feared a dirty 
player, because a dirty player never had 
enough ability to depend on his own 
strength, otherwise he would not need to 
use dirty methods. 

(e) The fellow who is dirty in athletics is 
very apt in later life to be shady in his 
business transactions. 


5. Besides being Physically Strong, David 
had Other AccompUshments. He was 
an All-Round Man. 

(a) He played the harp. (I Sam. 16: 16-17.) 

(b) He sang. 

(c) He wrote poetry. (See the Psalms.) 

(d) He had time for fine friendships, like 
that of Jonathan. (I Sam. 18: 1.) 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What is an athlete? 

2. What seven characteristics of an ideal ath- 
lete are mentioned in the description of David? 
(I Sam. 16:18.) 

3. Find evidence in the story of David's life 
that proves that he was a man of powerful 
physique. (I Sam. 17:36-39 and 51.) 

4. What qualities other than muscle are re- 
quired to produce a successful athlete? 

5. Name other accomplishments beside that 
of athletic ability which tend to make David an 
example to young manhood. 

6. Can a successful athlete also be a Chris- 
tian ? 


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1. The Value of Play. 

David practised stone throwing while he 
tended his sheep. This was his play. Relax- 
ation is necessary. "All work and no play 
makes Jack a dull boy." 

2. Physically Helpful Diversion. 

David found his relaxation and diversion in 
the right way. Many fail at this point. He 
made his play build up his body, not tear it 
down. If he had found his relaxation in his 
preparatory period in cigarette smoking, for 
example, he would have permanently weak- 
ened his eyesight, decreased his lung capa- 
city, and impaired his control. He never 
could have killed Goliath if he had not been 
able to obtain absolute accuracy in stone 
throwing. (See "Connie" Mack on cigarette 
smoking, in Appendix.) 

3. Self-Defense. 

His form of sport also developed his physical 
powers of self-defense, as do boxing, jiu- 
jitsu, or wrestling. He could take care of 
himself under any and all circumstances. 
David, however, though strong, was not of 
a combative nature. 

4. The Object of Athletics. 

All through his boyhood he kept training 


rules. This long, slow preparation alone 
could fit him for his unexpected opportunity. 
Athletics should always be regarded as fitting 
for life's later tasks, not merely as an expe- 
dient for winning games or medals. 

5. The Need of the Early Start. 
Champion baseball players are not produced 
in a moment. Their championship skill is 
built on the training they received in boy- 
hood, as they played baseball in the back 
lots. A substitute pitcher on a major league 
team, a boiler-maker who had just fallen 
short of the Mathewson class, laid his 
heartbreaking failure to his late start. 

6. The Physical Basis. 

The foundation of David's success was 
largely physical. Lack of training during 
the boyhood period may condemn a man to 
physical inferiority and to ill health for life. 
Physical stamina is well-nigh indispensable to 
successful life work. While many physical 
weaklings have done great things, the vigor- 
ous man has a great advantage over the 
sickly man. Mr. Roosevelt, the sickly boy 
who became an athletic man, is a good illus- 
tration of what can be and ought to be done. 

7. More Important. 

An essential part of David's training was 
moral and spiritual. The self-restraint and 


the high ideals thus learned helped him de- 
velop his great physique. While he was still 
a boy, the report went to the king that "the 
Lord is with him." The Bible, the Church, 
and the Christ will greatly help the athlete. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What weapon was a part of a shepherd's 
equipment ? 

2. What opportunity had David to practise an 
art at which he displayed wonderful skill? 

3. What were the physical effects of David's 
amusements ? 

4. What is the purpose of play and athletics ? 

5. How does play develop control? 

6. What is the fault of the delayed start in 
developing control? 

7. How important are physical strength and 
stamina ? 

8. What beside exercise was an essential 
part in David's training? 

9. How does Christianity help in the making 
of a successful athlete? 

10. To whom did David give credit for his 
great physical strength ? (Psalms 18 : 33-34.) 


A \ . 


— <. / 


1. A Dangerous Foe. 

The bully, Goliath, headed the formidable 
army of Philistines which threatened 
Israel's national existence. (I Sam. 17:1- 
10 and 16.) 

2. A National Need. 

The failure at this national crisis to find any 
man with skill and courage enough to meet 
the challenge. (I Sam. 17: 11.) 

3. The Man of the Hour. 

The appearance of David on the scene, un- 
suspecting the nearness of his opportunity, 
but prepared for it by his long training. (I 
Sam. 17:22-27.) 

4. No Effort at Grandstand Play. 

He fought with familiar weapons, refusing 
to participate in any event for which he was 
not trained. He had not "proved" swords 
and armor. (I Sam. 17 : 38-40.) 

5. Making Good. 

Superb control in the crisis. He was at his 
best when his best was needed. No nervous- 
ness nor stage fright. His training gave him 
confidence. He threw a stone with such 
perfect accuracy that it struck the small open 
spot on the forehead, the only vulnerable 
opening beneath the "helmet of brass." 


6. Modem. Parallels in Control. 

(a) Mathewson, the Giants' veteran pitcher, 
in the only game won by his team in the 
world series in 1913, with two men on 
bases in the ninth inning, struck out two 
batters and saved the day. 

(b) In the season of 1913, Brickley, Har- 
vard's great full-back, won the Yale- 
Harvard game by his timely goal kicking. 

7. The Secret of Heroism. 

Part of David's success was due to his belief 
in the cause for which he wanted to win. 
It was God's cause. He felt he was fighting 
the eternal battle between right and wrong. 
He could answer Goliath: "Thou comest to 
me with a sword and a spear and a shield, 
but I come to thee in the name of the Lord 
of Hosts." It makes a difference whether 
one fights for selfish gain or for some great 
unselfish object. Read "Horatius at the 

8. Divine Reinforcement. 

It is a simple fact of history that the man 
who has God to strengthen him has been the 
man who has accomplished the seemingly 
impossible. The Bible speaks of one man 
"chasing a thousand, and two putting ten 
thousand to flight." (Deut. 32 : 30.) 
Lincoln, on the night before the battle of 


Gettysburg, was conscious of the presence 
of God and had an assurance of victory. 

9. An Athlete's Hymn. 

David, later recognizing this, sang thus of 
the divine help in becoming a successful 
athlete : 

For by thee I have run through a troop; and by my 

God have I leaped over a wall. 
It is God that girdeth me with strength, and maketh my 

way perfect. 
He maketh my feet like deer's feet, .... 
He teacheth my hands skill with weapons, so that a 

bow of steel is broken by my arms. 

(Psalm 18:29,32-34.) 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What national crisis threatened the Israel- 
itish nation in David's youth? (I Sam. 17 : 1-7.) 

2. Explain the failure of the nation to pro- 
duce a man to meet his emergency. (I Sam. 17 : 

3. Why was David able to do what no one 
else was willing to undertake? (I Sam. 17: 37.) 

4. Whv did he refuse the weapons offered 
him? (I Sam. 17:38-40.) What did he select 
when he met the Philistine champion? 

5. What part did control play in this contest? 
(I Sam. 17:49.) 

6. Name some modern parallels showing 
similar wonderful control. 

7. What is the secret of true heroism ? 




ELIJAH, The Long Distance Runner 

Study Subject : Endurance 

Definition : The power of doing or bearing 
without giving way 

Biblical Material: I Kings 17-19 

"We do wrong when we live beneath our privilege; 
and knowing that we ought to exercise every day, we 
sin when we yield to the constant, deadening habit of 
sedentary life." — Frances Willard. 


1. Natural Environment. 

Gilead, in which is located Elijah's birthplace, 
Tishbet, "was a wild mountain district, on the 
eastern side of Jordan, bordering on the great 
desert." This mountain range varied from 
three thousand to four thousand feet in 
height. Elijah always lived and loved the 
out-of-doors life. "Lonely mountains and 
bleak deserts were congenial to his spirit." 

2. Training which Makes for Endurance. 

(a) He camps in caves by the brook Cherith. 
(I Kings 17:3.) 

(b) He wears a mantle of rough camel's 
hair. (H Kings 1:8.) 

(c) He haunts the slopes of Mount Carmel. 
(I Kings 18: 20.) 

(d) He spends some time in a cave at 
Horeb. (I Kings 19 : 9.) 

(e) He sleeps under a desert broom (juniper 
tree). (I Kings 19 : 5.) 

(£) He has the iron frame which enables 
him to endure practically a forty days' 
fast. (I Kings 19:8.) 

(g) So complete is his knowledge of the 
country that for three years he can evade 
Ahab's soldiers, so that they think his 
escape is due to his "being borne hither 


and thither by the spirit of Jehovah." (I 
Kings 18:13; II Kings 2:16.) 

(h) There is no evidence that he cared for 
the cities or visited them except as he came 
on business as the messenger of Jehovah, 
immediately returning to his wild home on 
the mountain-side. 

(i) Some of these characteristics we find in 
the modern Bedouin. 

(J) Of Elijah, it has been said by a poet 
that his father was the mountain and his 
mother the desert. 

(k) Living so much in solitude, Elijah must 
have been highly skilled as a hunter. Pos- 
sibly this is what is meant by saying the 
ravens brought him meat. Only in the 
drought was he forced to go to the widow 
in the distant city to find food. (I Kings 

3. The Modem Equivalent. 

In modern life, the nearest approach we can 
make to Elijah's training is fresh air, simple 
food, and plenty of outdoor exercise. 

'4. God in the Mountains. 

A trip to the mountains is often a revelation 
to the city boy. One gets a different idea of 
God and of nature and of life in the silent 
presence of these endless solitudes. The 
mountaineer has always been an alert, sturdy 
and stern type of man. Read "Trail of the 


Lonesome Pine," "Shepherd of the Hills," 

5. God in the Desert. 

A man forced by illness to camp in the 
desert, seeing no human face except his mes- 
senger, who came every third day, said : "Out 
there on the desert you can't get away from 
God. The silence is so great you don't like to 
hear your own voice. And after a few weeks 
of it, you can't help hearing God's voice. It 
is the most certain thing in the desert." 

6. The Source of Bravery. 

With this training, it is not strange that God 
should have been the one great fact in life 
to Elijah. Seeing God in his power in 
nature, and understanding how much more 
powerful God is than any man, King Ahab 
and Queen Jezebel and the soldiers did not 
frighten him much. 

7. A Mistaken Idea. 

In view of the foregoing, the usual idea of 
the prophets, as portrayed, for instance, in 
Sargent's painting, that they are effeminate, 
bloodless, and weak, is a mistaken one. 

8. The Moral Equivalent of War. 

The Christian life has been called "the moral 
equivalent of war." The strongest and most 
virile qualities of life are required for 


Christ-likeness. It is a pitiful mistake to 
think following the Master is weak or "sis- 
sified" ; the stronger the man, the better the 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What was the type of country in which 
Elijah was born and lived?? 

2. What kind of training made for his great 
endurance? (I Kings 17:3, 18:20, 19:5-9; II 
Kings 1:8-9, 2:16.) 

3. What has been the effect on the physical 
life of to-day by the change from country to 
city life? 

4. How near can we approach Elijah's man- 
ner of life under modern conditions ? 

5. What effect have the vastness and soli- 
tude of the mountain and desert on our religious 
ideas ? 

6. What is the source of true bravery? 



1. The National Crisis. 

(a) King Ahab married the Princess Jezebel 
of Phoenicia. 

(b) The reHgion of Phcenicia was unspeak- 
ably degraded, resuUing in evil practices, 
as is the case with most Oriental religions. 

(c) After his marriage, Ahab made this the 
court religion instead of the pure, uplift- 
ing worship of Jehovah. Jezebel imported 
four hundred and fifty corrupt priests. 

(d) Whether Israel should become a petty 
and degraded Oriental kingdom, or the 
nation should continue to be the chosen 
people who eventually would give the 
world Christianity, its final religion, was 
the question at issue. (I Kings 16:29- 

2. The Saviour of the Nation. 

(a) The king had absolute power of life and 
death, and for a time no one dared to 
oppose him. 

(b) Suddenly out of the mountains appeared 
this mighty man Elijah, who dramatically 
confronted the king and told him his sin 
and brought drought and famine. (I Kings 

(c) The king searched for three years at 
home and in neighboring countries during 


the famine for Elijah, but could not cap- 
ture him. 

(d) At last Elijah again confronted the 
king, and arranged the great test of reli- 
gion on Mount Carmel. The "fire from 
heaven" may have been something like a 
bolt of lightning which struck Elijah's 
altar. \l Kings 18:16-39.) 

(e) After it had been proved that Jehovah, 
not Baal, was the true God, and all the 
people had cried out, "The Lord, he is 
God; the Lord, he is God," then Elijah 
promised the end of the drought. 

3. The Run, 

(a) Elijah ordered Ahab the king to hurry- 
home to Jezreel before the rain should 
prevent his going. (I Kings 18 : 44-46.) 

(b) He knew that the real fight against the 
false religion had to be fought with Queen 
Jezebel at Jezreel. 

(c) So, under the inspiration of his great 
battle, for "the hand of the Lord was upon 
him," he set out to beat Ahab to Jezreel. 

(d) The distance was sixteen miles. 

(e) The speed surpassed that of the war 
horses attached to the king's chariot. 

(f) The run was made during a fierce storm. 

4. Historical. 

The first "Marathon" was run in 490 B. C. 
by a messenger bringing to Athens the news 


of the decisive defeat at the village of Mara- 
thon of the Persian army by the Greeks 
under Miltiades. The distance was twenty- 
six miles, and after delivering his message 
the runner fell dead. 

5. The Danger of Overdoing. 

An athlete may exhibit endurance in wind 
and muscle that far surpasses the capacity 
of heart and kidneys. The result may be a 
broken constitution, a dilated heart, a dam- 
aged kidney, a life of comparative ineffi- 

6. Modem Parallels. 

(a) Olympic games in Athens, 1896. 

James Thorpe's Records at Olympic 

Games, 1913 

Running broad jump, 23 feet, 3 inches. 
Javelin throw, 170 feet, 1 inch. 
200-meter run, 23 seconds. 
1500-meter run, 4 minutes, 44 seconds. 
Discus throw, 116 feet, 9 inches. 


100-yard dash, 103-5 seconds. 
16-pound shot, 44 feet, 3 1-8 inches. 
High jump, 6 feet, 1 1-4 inches. 
H-mile walk, 4 minutes, 37 seconds. 
Hammer throw, 122 feet, 10 inches. 
Pole vault, 9 feet, 6 inches. 
High hurdle, 16 2-5 seconds. 


56-pound weight, 26 feet, 2 inches. 
Mile run, 5 minutes, 26 seconds. 

7. Not a Feat of Bravado. 

This Marathon of EHjah was not a mere 
spectacular athletic stunt. It was a great 
piece of service in an emergency. While it 
might be glorious to sacrifice one's strength 
or life to serve some fine cause, it is no credit 
to run a Marathon only for self-pride or 
display. Physical strength, like all other 
talents, is given to be used for making the 
world a better one. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. Describe the political and religious situa- 
tion in Israel at the time this Marathon occurred. 

2. From what you have learned of the early 
life of Elijah, what sort of a man was it who 
faced King Ahab and his queen? 

3. How long did Elijah live an outlaw in the 
Gilead mountains? 

4. Describe the fire test on Mount Carmel. 

5. Give an account of the Marathon. 

6. Name some modern parallel. 

7. What are the dangers to be avoided in 
athletics ? 


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1. The Mountaineer's Defeat and Danger. 

(a) The supernatural manifestations of Je- 
hovah on Mount Carmel failed to impress 
Queen Jezebel, who vowed vengeance 
upon the enemy of her religion. 

(b) She sends word to Elijah that before 
another day she will have his life in return 
for the lives of the slain four hundred and 
fifty priests of Baal. (I Kings 19 : 1-2.) 

(c) In utter discouragement, feeling he has 
lost the great battle to save his nation, 
Elijah begins his long flight into the wil- 
derness. (I Kings 19:3-4.) 

(d) His dejection reaches its climax after 
he has covered nineteen miles the first day, 
and he sleeps under a desert broom or 
"juniper tree" (I Kings 19:5). Fatigue 
lessens the power of resistance and tends 
to mental depression. Temptations are 
most dangerous when one is tired. 

(e) At this time, he comes dangerously near 
to quitting, but his grit returns in the 
morning when he is physically rested, and 
he feels again that God is with him. 

(f) A close study of Abraham Lincoln's life 
shows that his experience was like Elijah's 
under the juniper tree. Repeatedly, as 
before Gettysburg, he felt a distinct re- 


assurance from God that there was no 
need to give up, because the right would 
prevail. Like Elijah, he came gradually 
to understand God's ways better and to 
trust him with a more complete confidence. 

2. The Physical Aspects of the Endurance 

(a) Extra effort to escape the danger of 
Jezebel's threat carried him swiftly to 
Beersheba from Jezreel. 

(b) Leaving his servant, he goes along "a 
day's journey" into the wilderness and 
camps wherever nightfall overtakes him. 
(I Kings 19:4.) 

(c) Throughout his journey he sleeps in the 

(d) So far as he has food, he finds it in the 
wild country he is traversing. He ate very 
little, so that the time is described as a 
"fast." (I Kings 19:8.) 

(e) The mountain climbing and the hot 
desert stretches made the going so difficult 
that it is doubtful if a less hardy traveler 
could have survived the hardships. 

(f) Calculating the distance as two hundred 
and eighty miles, he must have covered an 
average of from five miles to ten miles a 
day for forty consecutive days. 

(g) The feat is the more remarkable when 
Elijah's mental depression is considered. 


3. The Purpose of the Walk. (I Kings 19: 

(a) Elijah was running away from Jezebel, 
the queen, although shortly before he had 
successfully defied the king and his army 
and the four hundred and fifty priests 
armed with knives. 

(b) His violent and bloody effort to save 
the religion of his fathers had seemingly 
failed and he wanted time to think. 

(c) At Horeb, "the mount of God," he 
would find safety from his enemies and 
could, in the solitude, learn from God the 
cause of his failure. 

(d) This endurance walk was really a 
search for God and his will. 

(e) At the journey's end, during the storm, 
when Elijah had gone from the cave 
where he was camping to the "mount of 
the Lord," he saw an earthquake and a 
great wind and a fire, and then heard an 
inner still, small voice. 

(f) Elijah thus learned that while God is a 
God of power. Lord of nature and of 
physical strength, the appeal of the "still, 
small voice" to conscience is the only way 
false religion can be overthrown. 

(g) Having learned his mistake, he returned, 
and at last, by other and better methods 
than killing four hundred and fifty men, 


he succeeded in his life work of saving the 
reHgion of Israel, and the sin of Ahab and 
Jezebel brought them both to untimely 

4. A Modem Parallel of Physical Endurance. 

Mr. Weston, traversing thousands of miles 
afoot each year, furnishes a remarkable 
physical parallel to the endurance of Elijah. 

5. Providence. 

In spite of Elijah's mistakes, God cared for 
him and brought his bungling efforts to 
success. It is a w^onderful teaching of the 
Bible that this is true of us all — God seeks 
us until we find him, and uses and overrules 
even our mistakes for the largest good to 
ourselves and to his kingdom. 

6. Seeking God. 

Every man must find God for himself. No 
one else can do it for him. Sometimes this 
happens in a church service, a men's meet- 
ing, or in a revival ; sometimes it happens in 
very early childhood. After this conversion, 
when we get personally acquainted with God, 
we go on finding more and more of him by 
continued seeking. Elijah had his supreme 
experience with God out in the woods all 
by himself, and then came back to serve 
him where the crowds were. 


Questions for Discussion 

1. What was Elijah's physical condition when 
he received the message from Queen Jezebel? 

2. What was the effect of the message? (I 
Kings 19:3-4.) 

3. What relation does fatigue have to this 
mental attitude? 

4. In what way does Lincoln's life show a 
parallel to Elijah? 

5. Describe some of the aspects of the 
endurance walk. 

6. What made the walk a remarkable one ? 

7. What was the real purpose of the walk? 

8. What methods did he use after this expe- 
rience ? 

9. What is endurance? 

10, Name several parallels of endurance? 

11. What truth is illustrated in the life of 




W.cAj£r-l^ ,^MXin4J< 

SAMSON, The Weight Lifter 

Study Subject: Strength 
Definition: Capacity for exertion 
Biblical Material: Judges 13-17 

"It is a good thing to laugh, to throw the head back 
and let the blood into the veins, and let the arteries 
rest, so that we may store up energy." — G. Stanley Hall. 


1. The Philistines. 

(a) After the entrance into Canaan of the 
Israelites under Joshua, they were con- 
tinually fighting for their lives against the 
surrounding peoples. 

(b) Among the most powerful and persist- 
ent of these enemies were the Philistines. 

(c) At Samson's birth, the Philistines had 
extended their power over the territory of 
the Danites, his native tribe, and over the 
territory of Judah. 

2. The Birth of Samson. (Judges 13.) 

(a) In great national emergencies, God has 
always raised up a leader for his people. 

(b) In the village of Zorah, in Palestine, 
lived Manoah and his wife, who were 
supernaturally informed that their own son 
was to be a Nazarite, one consecrated to 
God from his birth, as a deliverer for 
Israel. His long hair was the sign of this 
consecration and his badge of office as a 
Nazarite. Giving up his hair was giving 
up his calling. (Verses 1-5.) 

(c) Samson's prenatal influences were of 
the best. His mother was careful of diet, 
of drink, and of thoughts, and was an early 
advocate of eugenics. (Verse 7.) 

(d) He was the right sort of a boy, and "he 


grew and the Lord blessed him." (Verse 

3. His Tremendous Strength. 

(a) He killed a young mountain lion or wild 
cat barehanded. This was not an Afri- 
can lion. (Judges 14:5-6.) 

(b) Tied with two cords, he broke them 
with ease. (Judges 15 : 13-14.) 

(c) He "took the doors of the gate of the 
city and the two posts and went away with 
them, bar and all, and put them on his 
shoulders and carried them to the top of a 
hill." These gates were wooden gates, and 
the total weight was between one thousand 
and two thousand pounds. The hill was a 
sandy hill. 

(d) He was bound with cords made of 
grapevines, and he broke them "as a thread 
of tow is broken when it toucheth the fire." 
(Judges 16:9.) 

(e) When fastened around and around with 
new ropes, he "broke them from off his 
arms like a thread." (Judges 16 : 12.) 

(f) His hair was woven into the web on an 
oriental loom, and with a jerk of his head 
he wrenched loose the fastenings, pulling 
up the stake to which the loom was 
attached. (Judges 16 : 14.) 

(g) Standing between two uprights sup- 
porting a bleacher-like porch in the court- 


yard of the palace, he displaced them with 
a supreme effort, allowing the structure to 
collapse. (Judges 16:29-30.) 

4. Modem Parallels of Strength. 

(a) It is a common circus stunt for men to 
attach a chain to a comb which fastens in 
the hair, and by a jerk of the head draw 
out nails from a board. 

(b) Clarence Verrill, Yale '99, as a child 
was sickly and puny. Physicians agreed 
that his chances of growing up were 
very small. Determined, however, that 
he would live, he worked out his own 
cure, which was, in brief, fresh air, exer- 
cises, and nourishing food, and in April, 
1897, he broke all college records for 
strength tests. He was an all-round ath- 
lete, captain of baseball, played on football 
eleven, won many track events, rowed on 
the college crew, was an expert swimmer, 
and was also a prominent boxer, fencer 
and wrestler. Contrary to the practice of 
most college athletes, he never gave up his 

5. The Reason for Strength. 

Health and physical power do not mean 
much unless used for some spiritual purpose. 
No man can hope to have as much strength 
as a horse, and if there were no standard of 
value other than the physical one, horses 


would be worth more than men. Often the 
strongest man can scarcely earn a dollar and 
a half a day, and that is because he has not 
learned how to use his strength. A very 
healthy and vigorous man, despite his 
strength, may have a bad influence on all 
the community because he is bad. Strength 
is to be used for service, and only then does 
it become really valuable to the world. Pro- 
fessionalism in sports has, through its attend- 
ant evils of dishonesty and gambling, done 
much to rob the world of strength and skill 
which otherwise might have been utilized for 
definite Christian service. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What tribe continually sought to capture 
the Israelitish people? 

2. With reference to leaders, what providen- 
tial thing always happens in great national crises ? 

3. What is true of prenatal influence? 

4. Tell some facts relating to Samson's birth ? 

5. What is strength? 

6. Cite instances of his tremendous strength. 
(Judges 14:5-6; 15:13-14; 16:9; 16:12; 16: 
14; 16:29-30.) 

7. Name some modern parallels of strength, 

8. What is the real purpose of strength ? 



. The Steps in Samson's Downfall. 

(a) As a boy he was "at times moved by 
the spirit of the Lord" and he gave some 
promise of making good as Israel's deHv- 
erer. (Judges 13: 25.) 

(b) His first act of manhood, his choice of 
a bride, was a mistake. Against his par- 
ents' will, and in defiance of patriotic 
motives, he married a girl who belonged 
to the enemy, the Philistines, merely be- 
cause she was physically attractive. 
(Judges 14:1-3.) 

(c) Betrayed by his wife, he began his be- 
lated fight against the Philistines, not for 
patriotic principle, but for personal ven- 
geance, in order to get even. (Judges 15: 

(d) Leaving the pure love of his wife, he 
entered upon an impure life, which quickly 
brought his downfall. (Judges 16:1-21.) 

(e) With his eyes put out, his strength taken 
away, as a slave of the Philistines, he 
again so lived as to recover his strength, 
and at last, when his tormentors brought 
him out to mock his helplessness, with one 
final prayer for help, he wrecked the 


Structure, which thus became his own tomb 
and that of thousands of his enemies. 

(f) Despite his tragic end, Samson did much 
to accomplish his purpose. In the collapse 
of the building, many "heads of houses" 
were slain. 

(g) This sad spectacle of wasted strength 
and of physical and spiritual failure on 
account of evil finds its parallel in every 
village and city. 

2. The Workers may Fail but the Work 
Goes OrL 

(a) Something more than a great oppor- 
tunity and great native ability are needed 
to produce a national leader or a success- 
ful life. Many a promising boy turns out 

(b) Samson had not only physical strength; 
he had cleverness, as is shown by the riddle 
and the story of the foxes. 

(c) What he lacked was personal goodness 
and unselfish patriotism. The two usually 
go together. No dissipated man ever did 
a supremely great unselfish work in the 

(d) Christ, in the Parable of the Talents, 
which are lost if not rightly used, tells us 
the story of Samson in another way. 
(Matt. 25:14-30.) 

(e) God prepared the way and gave Samson 


every opportunity to deliver Israel, but 
even God himself is helpless in the pres- 
ence of a stubborn human will, 
(f) But God carried on his work despite 
Samson, and a little later, under Samuel, 
Saul, and David, the Philistines were 
driven out. 

3. The Athlete's Temptation. 

Samson's physical makeup brought him 
temptations which a less virile man would 
never have known. A young fellow was 
rebuking an older man for losing his temper. 
"I control more temper when I'm angry than 
you ever had," was the retort. As strength 
and ability increase, so temptations increase. 
I : The bigger the man, the greater his battles, 
I j Christ fought three of his temptations for 
' forty days. Only as we develop self-re- 
straint and firm purposes is it safe to have 
strength and power entrusted to us. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What was the great mission Samson had 
to perform? 

2. What was the first big mistake Samson 
made? (Judges 14: 1-3.) 

3. What happened when he avenged a per- 
sonal grievance? (Judges 15: 11.) 

4. What was the next step in Samson's 
downfall? (Judges 16 : 1-21.) 


5. Describe Samson's tragic end. (Judges 

6. Think of others who have made similar 
sad spectacles of their lives. 

7. What beside mere muscle is needed to 
produce a national leader or a successful life? 

8. What did Samson lack in his life? 

9. When is God helpless? 

10. Was Samson's life an utter failure? 

11. What men completed his job? 


x^iJ-^O'k fV^^^^-'H^^^ 

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PETER, The Oarsman 

Study Subject: Leadership 

Definition : Ability to direct 

Biblical Material: Luke 5:1-7; John 21:3-7; 
Mark 1:16; Mark 6:45-51 

"The gymnastics that makes you hold your head up 
tends to straighten your moral behavior." — Edward 
Howard Griggs. 


1. The Fisherman. 

Peter and Andrew, James and John, two sets 
of brothers, were partners in the fishing busi- 
ness on the Sea of Galilee for a long period 
before they ever knew the Master. The Sea 
of Galilee is famous for the number and 
quality of its fish, and Peter probably had no 
difficulty by his day's work in his boat in 
earning a living for himself and wife. (Mark 

2. Self-Reliance in Emergencies. 

The lake is surrounded by beautiful hills 
which are almost mountainous, and owing to 
the great difference in the temperature of the 
various elevations, violent and sudden storms 
are a very frequent occurrence. The fishing 
boats are often in the greatest peril. Peter as 
a boy and man, under these circumstances, 
must have developed great skill in handling 
boats. Power boats were, of course, un- 
known, and instead of steam, gasoline, or 
electricity, even for the largest craft, sails 
and oars were the only known means of 
propulsion. (Storms are described in John 
6:16-18; Mark 4:35-38.) 

3, Characteristics. 

Professional fishermen, even today, are usu- 
ally very hardy and strong in physique. 


Their calling is among the most dangerous of 
all. "Fishin' Jimmy" thus described other 
qualities developed by fishing: "Patience, 
knowledge of the interests of the fish, faith in 
things unseen, skill, delicacy of touch, refusal 
to be discouraged, unlimited perseverance, 
conviction he has not exhausted the possi- 
bilities of his art." 

4. Some Biblical Passages which Show Peter 

as an Oarsman. 

(a) Peter and Andrew in their boats at 
work. (Mark 1: 15.) 

(b) Peter rowing his boat for Jesus. (Luke 

(c) An exciting trip in a storm, rowing 
almost all night. (Mark 6:45-51.) 

(d) Swimming from his boat to the shore 
to meet the Master. (John 21 : 1-8.) 

5. Modern Parallels. 

(a) Any day on New Fish Wharf, South 
Boston, or at the docks in Gloucester, 
sturdy fishermen may be met ashore from 
their perilous trips, which range the Atlan- 
tic from Cape Cod to Newfoundland. 
These are necessarily brave men. 

(b) Some of the greatest men of our day 
have been enthusiastic followers of Izaak 
W^'alton, such as Henry van Dyke and 
Grover Cleveland. 


(c) Rowing has come to be one o£ the most 
popular intercollegiate sports. To make 
the crew, especially at Harvard, Yale, Co- 
lumbia, or Cornell, is one of the highest 
athletic honors. Ten Eyck, Courtney, and 
other coaches have gained renown by their 
mastery in this branch of sport. 

6. The Early Disciples. 

It is interesting to note that the Apostles 
whom Jesus chose to introduce Christianity 
to the world were mostly strong, out-of-doors 
men, who had worked with their hands. 
They were men who presumably were 
of strong physique. To men with red blood, 
Christ still makes his appeal, and such men 
need him most. 

Questions for Discussion. 

1. Who was Peter? 

2. Describe the country in which he lived. 

3. Why were storms sudden and frequent in 
this section? 

4. Name some characteristics of fishermen. 

5. Give instances of Peter's ability as an 

6. Name some modern parallels of fishermen 
and oarsmen. (Mark 1:16-19; Luke 5:1-7; 
Mark 6 : 45-51 ; Luke 5 : 2-10.) 

7. What evidence have you discovered which 
proves that the early Christians were physically 
strong ? 


8. Why do physically strong men need Chris- 
tianity ? 

9. Why does Christ need strong and compe- 
tent men for his kingdom? 



1. Qualities of an Oarsman. 

Peter's life as an oarsman on the Sea of Gali- 
lee, developing physical stamina, resourceful- 
ness, quickness of thought and action in an 
emergency (as when a squall of wind ap- 
peared), and courage in the face of frequent 
danger tended to fit him for his later leader- 
ship in founding organized Christianity. 

2. Unpromising Material. 

His development as a leader was gradual. 
At first he was over-impulsive, conceited, 
fickle, and very slow to learn. 

(a) His over-impulsiveness appears in his 
rash attack on Malchus at the time of 
Jesus' arrest. (John 18 : 10-11.) 

(b) His conceit is shown by his boasting. 
(Mark 14:29.) 

(c) The Master pointed out his fickleness 
to him. (Luke 22:31-32.) 

(d) The Master rebuked him for his slow- 
ness to understand. (Matt. 16: 23.) 

3. Leaders must be developed. 

Even Jesus could not find leaders ready- 
made; he took the material at hand, recog- 
nizing undeveloped qualities of leadership in 
his followers ; he trained them for responsi- 
bility. When first he met Peter, he predicted 


Peter would be a rock-like leader. (John 1 : 
42.) In the church, the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, in athletics, in politics, and 
wherever direction is required, the necessary- 
leadership must come by a similar method. 
The world is looking for competent leader- 
ship, but it comes by developing the qualities 
of those already engaged in a given subject. 

4. Everybody has a Chance. 

The ambition to be a leader is wholly com- 
mendable. It is perfectly right for a player 
to wish to captain the team if he believes he 
has the ability to do so. No man has a right 
to seek to be a leader unless he feels he can 
deliver the goods. The safest rule is to let 
the other fellows judge who is the man best 
fitted to lead. If a man has qualities for 
leadership, they will surely be recognized 
without his pushing himself for office. Hu- 
mility is a sure sign of greatness. James and 
John and their mother were sharply rebuked 
for place-hunting of a selfish sort, which is 
always despicable. (Matt. 20 : 20-21.) 

5. Some Biblical Descriptions of Peter's 


(a) He was usually the spokesman for the 
other disciples. (Matt. 16:16.) 

(b) He was the skipper of the fishing vessel. 
(Luke 5:3.) 

(c) Probably he was in command of the 


vessel which crossed the lake in the storm. 
(John 6:17-31.) 

(d) After the crucifixion, he led the dis- 
ciples back to their fishing. (John 21 : 3.) 

(e) He took the leadership of the church at 
Pentecost, and with Paul was its chief 
leader until his death, when he was cruci- 
fied head downward. 

(f) His leadership did not end with his 
death. His second letter to the church, 
which is preserved in our Bible, is a sort 
of will by which he endeavors that after 
his death they may be able to keep these 
things always in remembrance. (H Peter 
1:12-13; 3:1.) 

6. A Big Question. 

Every leader, whether boy or king, must 
decide whether he will seek his own advan- 
tage or whether he will serve unselfishly 
those whom he leads. A preacher may be 
selfish, or he may pour out his life for his 
people. A political leader may look for the 
main chance, or he may really try to do the 
best thing for those who elected him. All 
leaders face this question. Christ, the 
supreme leader, had no thought of himself, 
but gave his life for all the world. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What things happening in his daily work 
fitted Peter to become a great leader? 


2. What were his outstanding faults? Are 
they yours? (John 18:10-11; Mark 14:29; 
Luke 22:31-32; Matt. 16:23.) 

3. Cite an instance of his great weaknesses. 
(Mark 14 : 29 ; John 18 : 10-11.) 

4. Are leaders ready-made or must they 
develop themselves? 

5. How are leaders developed? 

6. Give instances of Peter's ability as a 
leader. (Matt. 16:16; Luke 5:3; John 6 : 17- 
31; John 21 : 3 ; II Peter 3:1.) 

7. What big question must every leader face ? 




PAUL, The Sailor and Swimmer 

Study Subject: Pluck 

Definition : Perseverance or gameness under 

Biblical Material : Acts 37:26; II Corinthians 
11 : 23-33 

"Get health. No labor, pains or exercise that can 
gain it must be grudged." — Emerson. 


L The Influence of Boyhood Scenes — Sailors, 
Soldiers and Gymnastics. 

(a) Paul was born in Tarsus, a seaport city 
of great importance, with a world-wide 
commerce. As a boy visiting the water- 
front, he saw ships and met sailors from 
all parts of the then known world. Thus 
he came to know and love the active life 
of the seafaring man. 

(b) While there was no garrison of Roman 
soldiers at Tarsus, Paul as a Roman must 
early have come in contact with the Roman 
soldiery. He repeatedly refers to soldiers, 
weapons, and events of the hand-to-hand 
warfare which was the only kind known to 
his age. These soldiers were necessarily 
athletic. They had to be men of muscle 
and physical strength. Paul knew and 
liked their outdoor life. 

(c) The gymnasium was a conspicuous fea- 
ture of the life of his time. The first pub- 
lic or municipal gymnasium was located at 
Tarsus. Gladiatorial contests, which were 
not always bloody, were the national sport, 
like baseball to-day. Running, quoit 
throwing, wrestling, and boxing were 
popular games. The people generally 
lived an outdoor life, and to the Greeks, 
physical development was as important as 


is schooling in the thought of our age. 
Nothing could be "good" which was not 
"beautiful" to the eye. They worshiped 
symmetry of body as they worshiped 
symmetry of architecture. Paul was edu- 
cated in this atmosphere. 

2. Paul Probably did not have a Rugged 


We have no way of knowing about Paul's 
own physique. His exploits would indicate 
he must have had much endurance. Some 
think his "thorn in the flesh" (II Cor. 12 : 7) 
was a physical ailment which humiliated him. 
There is at least one mention in his letters of 
a painful sickness. (Gal. 4: 13.) 

3. Pluck Does not Depend on Muscle. 

One story about Paul, which may or may 
not be true, is that he was small, baldheaded, 
knock-kneed, and not very attractive to look 
at. If so, he is an example of how a man 
with an insignificant body can still have a 
courageous soul. Many men have the spirit 
of football players without having sufficient 
muscle to do much at the game. Pluck does 
not necessarily depend on muscle. 

4. Sometimes the Small Man Triumphs. 
Pluck, it will thus be seen, is as much a 
matter of the spirit as of the body. The 
smaller boy often has the most pluck. The 


bully frequently goes down before a man 
half his size. What really counts is a man's 
nerve. Napoleon, John Wesley, and many 
of the world's greatest men have been small 
in stature. 

5. His Athletic Interest. 

While Paul probably performed his athletic 
feats by sheer pluck, and while he had not the 
physique of the athlete, it is noticeable he 
loved strength in other men and sympathized 
with athletic development. Thus many a col- 
lege student who would be happy to play on 
the teams is forced to play the game from the 
side lines. The man of intellectual and spir- 
itual strength should not sneer at physical 
power simply because it is denied him. 

6. Some Bible Verses w^hich Show Paul's 

Athletic Sympathies. 

(a) Running and fighting. (I Cor. 9:25- 

(b) Fighting the good fight. (I Tim. 6: 

(c) A runner finishing the course. (II Tim. 

(d) The bleachers. (Hebr&ws 12 : 1.) 

(e) The armor and weapons of a Roman 
soldier. (Eph. 6:11-15.) 

(f) Strength. (Eph. 6:10.) 

(g) The Greek games — wrestling. (Eph. 


7. The Modern Church Shares Paul's Ath- 
letic Sympathy, 
This sympathy with physical development, 
found throughout the Bible, is repeated in 
much of the religious thought of our own 
time. It is now no uncommon thing to see 
an athletic minister. "Billy" Sunday once 
played baseball on the Chicago Nationals. 
Bishop Hughes is an expert tennis player. 
Many boys' clubs, Sunday school classes, 
brotherhoods, and other church organizations 
have baseball or basket ball teams. The 
Young Men's Christian Association, through 
its gymnasia and athletics, is everywhere 
preaching a gospel of health and physical 
development. The triangular badge of the 
Association stands for symmetrical develop- 
ment of body, mind, and spirit. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What was Paul's early environment? 

2. Where was the first public gymnasium 
located ? 

3. Does pluck depend upon muscle? 

4. Upon what beside muscle does pluck 
largely depend? 

5. Name some world characters who were 
small in stature or physically weak. 

6. Give instances of Paul's athletic sym- 
pathies. (I Cor. 9:23-27; I Tim. 6: 12; II Tim. 
4:7; Heb. 12:1; Eph. 6 : 11-18, 6:10.) 

7. How does the modern church show its 
interest in the physical welfare of humanity? 



1. An Impromptu Captain. 

Having learned much about the sea as a boy, 
he practically took command of his ship in 
the great storm which wrecked it, because he 
was the one best fitted to bring hope and 
safety out of the panic. He swam ashore 
after the wreck, possibly by aid of a spar. 
(Acts 27.) 

2. Other Shipwrecks. 

(a) At one time after being shipwrecked he 
was in the water a day and a night. Only 
a plucky swimmer could have survived. 
(H Cor. 11:25.) 

(b) In all, he was shipwrecked four times at 
least, but still continued a fearless traveler 
in his great work of bringing Christianity 
for the first time to Europe. 

3. Mobbed. 

Knowing his life was in greatest danger, he 
nevertheless went up to Jerusalem, where he 
was attacked by an angry mob, dragged out 
of the Temple, and beaten almost to death. 
He was fortunately rescued by the Roman 
soldiers when well-nigh unconscious. Never- 
theless, he insisted, bloody and bruised as he 
was, on facing the mob from the stairs and 


preached to them until their screeches of 
rage drowned his voice. Nothing daunted, 
he tried next day to preach to the Jewish 
ofificials, and later when he could have been 
set free by remaining silent, again he refused 
liberty and appealed to Nero, remaining 
under arrest so that he could get to Rome, 
where he preached also. (Acts 23-37.) 

4. Stoned. 

At Lystra, after Paul was stoned into uncon- 
sciousness, so the people thought he was 
dead, they threw his body outside the city 
gate. When he regained consciousness, 
with his followers he went immediately back 
into the city and stayed till next day. (Acts 

5. Imprisoned. 

At Philippi, when Paul and Silas were put 
in prison and forced to sit all night with feet 
in stocks, instead of being discouraged, they 
sang and prayed. (Acts 16 : 25.) 

6. Flogged. 

Five times Paul w^as flogged with thirty-nine 
lashes. Besides this, he was "beaten with 
rods" three times. (II Cor. 11 : 24, 25.) His 
body must have been covered with scars. 
Perhaps he called these "the marks of the 
Lord Jesus" for whose sake he endured all 


7. Beheaded. 

He was betrayed by false friends, robbed in 
the wilderness, often hungry, often cold, 
sometimes ragged and shivering, often "in 
weariness and painfulness," yet nothing 
could stop this grand hero, who was so 
anxious to spread Christianity that he per- 
severed until, when he had "finished the 
course," he was beheaded by order of Nero 
in the Appian Way at Rome. 

8. Livingstone a Modem Paul. 

The nearest approach to the pluck of Paul 
anywhere found in the modern world is the 
courage of David Livingstone, whose life- 
story every boy who loves bravery should 

9. The Yellow Streak Dooms the Athlete. 

Pluck or gameness or nerve, shown in Paul's 
life as part of his Christian character, is an 
essential quality of the successful athlete. 
Strength, control, physical endurance, are all 
in vain if a man has the spirit of a quitter. 

10. The Spiritual Value of Pluck. 

Perhaps the greatest value of athletics is in 
giving a man a plucky spirit to fight through 
his life work, making him unafraid to oppose 
evil and manfully "fight the good fight." 


Questions for Discussion 

1. Cite two instances of Paul's pluck, bravery, 
and skill as a sailor and swimmer. (Acts 27; 
II Cor. 11:25.) 

2. Give an account of his plucky achieve- 
ments in Acts 22-27, 14: 19, 16 : 25 ; II Cor. 11 : 

3. In what way does the life of David Living- 
stone offer a splendid parallel? 

4. How important is pluck in the makeup of 
an athlete? 

5. What is the spiritual value of pluck? 




JESUS, The Perfectly Balanced Personality 

Study Subject: Balance 

Definition: Combination of the strong qualities 
of personality so that each has its right pro- 
portion and none is overdeveloped. 

Biblical Material: Matthew 23:1-33, 10:38, 
Mark 1 : 34-35, 3 : 15-20 ; 
Luke 2 : 52, 4 : 28-30, 4 : 8-12, 19 : 45-46 ; 
John 11 : 35, 12 : 3, 18 : 6, 18 : 33, 19 : 17. 

"There are conditions for each individual under 
which he can do the most and best work. It is his 
business to ascertain those conditions and to comply 
with them." — Luther H. Gulick. 


1. There is no authentic information about 
Jesus' physical appearance. The artists' pic- 
tures of his face and form are based on a 
superstitious story which comes from early 
ages concerning the miraculous appearance 
of his likeness on a handkerchief. The world 
HQuld^ ay any price for _a..genuine picture of 
the Saviour. 

2. We can be perfectly sure that whatever his 
body may have been like, his personality was 
not effeminate,- On the contrary, he was the 
most vigorous, brave, and masculine char- 
acter of all history. Single-handed he started 
a revolution against the most powerful men 
of his day, who at last killed him but could 
not conquer him. 

3. Reasons for Thinking He had a Strong 


(a) The story of his life, told by the physi- 
cian Luke, speaks of his "growth in wis- 
dom and stature and in favor with God 
and man." (Luke 2 : 52.) 

(b) He worked for many years as a car- 
penter and woodworker. Later, when he 
came to be a preacher, he often used illus- 
trations drawn from his carpenter days ; 
as, "the green wood and dry" and the 
"house built on a sure foundation." 



(c) In those days of rough poverty for all 
classes of people except the nobles and 
soldiers, coarse food and heavy work v^ere 
the rule of all the common people. 

(d) There is nowhere in the gospels any 
hint of weakness or physical peculiarity 
such as we see in Paul's life. 

(e) During the years of his public ministry, 
his days and nights were filled with taxing 
and continuous work of teaching and heal- 
ing. Under the strain of his struggle with 
the Sadducees and Pharisees, no one could 
have survived such hardships without 
extraordinary power. 

(f) He lived out of doors, preaching and 
teaching and healing, mostly by the road- 
side and in the open fields. Traveling 
hundreds of miles, he never used a con- 
veyance, but went with his disciples on 
foot, from Galilee through Samaria to 
Jerusalem, back and forth many times. 
He was at home alike on the water, on the 
road, and at his workbench. 

Events which would Indicate a Command- 
ing Personal Presence. 

(a) In his first sermon in his own town, the 
people were so angered by his denunciation 
that like a mob they rushed him to the top 
of the precipice, intending to throw him 


over, but he "passing through the midst 
of them went his way." (Luke 4 : 28-30.) 

(b) Repeatedly he braved the wrath of the 
Pharisees, denouncing them face to face, 
but they never dared to attack him openly. 

(c) He thrashed a mob and single-handed 
drove the money-changers with a whip 
from the Temple. (John 2: 15-16.) 

(d) When the soldiers and the Jews came 
to arrest him in the garden, they fell to the 
ground in fear of him. (John 18 : 6.) 

(e) Pilate came to be almost afraid of him 
during the trial. (John 18:33-19:16.) 

(f) After the trial, despite all his fatigue, 
loss of sleep, and his many wounds, he 
carried the heavy cross for a considerable 
distance. (John 19: 17.) 

Studying thus the life of Jesus, we see how 
mistaken were the men who thought their 
bodies were wholly evil, so that they went 
into monasteries and beat themselves with 
whips and "humiliated the flesh," Jesus had 
a healthy out-of-door interest in life, loved 
to eat and drink and be happy, and doubtless 
had a muscular right arm of which he was 
proud. The man who thinks it is holy to 
have a weak body never learned the idea 
from Christ. 


Questions for Discussion 

1. Give proofs that Jesus had a powerful 

2. Name several events which prove his com- 
manding personality. 

3. From your study of Jesus, what was his 
opinion of the desirability of a clean, strong body 
for men? 




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The Triangle. 

The three aspects of human Hfe requiring 

balanced development are body, mind, and 


The Symmetrical Christ. 

In Jesus, body, mind, and soul were devel- 
oped in perfect proportion. He is the ideal 
man, sent by God to show us what we should 
be hke. He is the finest example of sym- 
metrical all-round personality the world has 
ever seen. 

The Model. 

It is for this reason that men of such very 
different types turn to Jesus. Teachers find 
him the ideal teacher. Preachers find him 
the ideal preacher. Artists wish they could 
see nature with his eyes. Workmen see how 
he made toil sacred. The ordinary man who 
believes God meant we should be strong in 
body and mind and soul turns to Jesus for 
his model. 

Illustration : "Pa" Roberts, for forty years a 
great influence in the Boston Young Men's 
Christian Association, speaking of the unbal- 
anced life, used to say "an egg will not roll 
nearly as far as a ball, because it is not well 


4. The Healer. 

Jesus' idea about the importance of a strong 
and healthful body may be learned from the 
fact that much of his time was spent in cor- 
recting deformities and curing various kinds 
of diseases. (Mark 1:34.) 

5. Science. 

Modern physiology bears this out in showing 
us that sound vital organs, supplied by rich, 
red blood, are necessary to normal life. 

6. The Superiority of Soul. 

Yet a strong body, unless it is governed by a 
developed mind, and unless it is used for 
some fine moral purpose, has little value. 
Few athletes would wish to be like that type 
of lumber-jack who is illiterate and dissi- 
pated, despite his magnificent physical devel- 
opment. An uncontrolled strength is worse 
than weakness. Indeed, however important 
physical development may seem to the ath- 
lete, Jesus teaches that the development of 
the mind and soul is far more important. He 
said one day, "Fear not them who are able 
to kill the body, but are not able to kill the 
soul." (Matt. 10:28.) 

7. Some Striking Qualities. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that it is in the 
balance of mental and spiritual qualities that 
the world has learned its richest lessons from 


(a) He was joyful without being frivolous 
or indifferent. Dr. Fosdick points out 
that the only two times Jesus ever 
bothered to explain his conduct were 
when he was accused of being too happy. 
(Mark 2:15-20.) Yet he wept at 
Lazarus' death. (John 11:35.) 

(b) He could be indignant without losing 
his temper. He denounced Scribes and 
Pharisees for their sins against widows 
and orphans (Matt. 23: 14), but would 
not say a word in his own behalf to 
Pilate (John 18:36). 

(c) He loved companionship, and his 
chief pleasure was in his close friend- 
ships (John 12:2), yet he demanded 
time for solitude and prayer ( Mark 1 : 

(d) He was progressive, breaking many 
sacred traditions, like eating with his 
unwashed hands, doing good on Sunday, 
and eating all kinds of meat — yet he 
was careful and conservative, coming 
"not to destroy but to fulfill the law and 
the prophets." (Matt. 5 : 17.) 

(e) He was absolutely fearless, even in 
the face of pain, poverty, misunder- 
standing, and death, yet he would do 
nothing for mere bravado and self-inter- 
est. (Luke 4:8-12.) 


8. A Modern Example. 

Abraham Lincoln, who for years studied the 
life of Jesus and tried to be like him, is a 
fine modern example of balance. Trained in 
the woods, even after he became President 
he astonished the nation by his marvelous 
feats of strength. Mentally he was one of 
the most highly developed men America has 
produced, and much of his education he dug 
out of books for himself. He was a great 
student of the Bible. Spiritually, he has 
often been compared to the Master. 

9. The Most Needed Characteristic. 

It is this quality of balance, perhaps, which 
we should most seek. Muscle without mind 
and soul is mere brute strength. Mind with- 
out health, or without spiritual restraint, is 
handicapped and may be dangerous. Spirit- 
ual zeal without education and normal physi- 
cal life is likely to be fanatical and one- 
sided and cranky. Perfect manhood — the 
Jesus kind — is symmetrically developed. 

Questions for Discussion 

1. What is balance ? 

2. Why is Jesus the finest example of balance 
or symmetrical personality the world has ever 
known ? 

3. What proofs have we that Jesus consid- 
ered a strong and healthy body important ? 


4. How does modern physiology bear this 

5. Show the need of a balanced life, 

6. From the following, point out the qualities 
by which the world has learned its richest lessons 
in balance: Mark 2:15-20; John 18:36; Matt. 
23 : 13-23 : John 9 : 10 ; John 12 : 2 ; Mark 1 : 35 ; 
Matt. 5:17; Luke 11:8-12. 

7. Give a fine modern example of balance. 

8. Why should we seek the balanced life? 





Dear Sir : 

Yours of January 1 received, and in reply will 
say that there is very little cigarette smoking 
among our baseball boys. We do everything in 
our power to discourage the use of cigarettes, 
knowing the great harm it has done to those 
who have been in the habit of using them. 

We find that those players who do smoke 
never amount to a great deal in the profession, 
and I would say that this goes for all profes- 
sions. It is my candid opinion, and I have 
watched very closely the last dozen years or 
more, that boys at the age of ten to fifteen who 
have continued smoking cigarettes do not as a 
rule amount to anything. They are unfitted in 
every way for any kind of work where brains 
are needed. Players, for instance, who should 
otherwise have continued in the game until they 
were at the age of thirty or thirty-five, have had 
to be let out years before their time, as the 
poisonous cigarettes getting into their system 
have unnerved and weakened them so that they 
were utterly unfit for the duty that they had to 

No boy or man can expect to succeed in this 
world to a high position and continue the use 
of cigarettes. 


After all, it is only a habit, and every one 
should have will power enough to overcome such 
a habit. There are many other ways that one 
can enjoy himself without the ruination of 
health, and this cannot be done if cigarette 
smoking is continued. 

Yours very truly, 

"Connie" Mack. 

The above letter from "Connie" Mack, man- 
ager of the Pennant Winners in the American 
League, shows what a practical and successful 
general knows about cigarettes. 


B. Deane Brink 

Investigation shows that alcohol tends to para- 
lyze, retard, and disturb the central brain func- 
tions. Experiments in calculation, typesetting, 
and memorizing show an increased number of 

A prominent physician, the examiner for a 
life insurance company, had this experience. *T 
passed as unusually good risks five Germans — 
young business men — who seemed in the best of 
health and to have superb constitutions. In a 
few years I was amazed to see the whole five 
drop off, one after another, with what ought to 
be mild and easily curable diseases. On compar- 


ing my experience with that of other physicians, 
I found they were all having similar luck with 
confirmed beer drinkers, and my practice since 
has heaped confirmation upon confirmation." — 
Quoted from Barker's "Saloon Problem and 
Social Reform." 

Insanity, nervous diseases, and a long list of 
physical ills are directly traceable to the use of 
beer and other alcoholic liquors. Get the book 
quoted above and read further into this social 
evil, which is rightly called "the great American 
issue to-day." 

The superintendent of the Milwaukee poor- 
house said that the saloons are responsible for 
more than two-thirds of Milwaukee's county 

Men about to commit a crime first drink 
heavily. This was true of the assassins of Lin- 
coln, Three of the conspirators were common 
drunkards, one was a rumseller, and Booth him- 
self was a heavy drinker. The assassin of Gar- 
field drank heavily before committing his deed. 
The assassin of McKinley was a product of the 
saloon. The man who shot Roosevelt was a 

"Drinking of alcoholic beverages, if abolished, 
would rip the social evil up the back, sever its 
spinal cord, and eliminate from the face of the 
earth chronic invalidism, deformities, premature 
deaths, blindness, feeble-mindedness, and insan- 
ity."— Dr. DeWitt G. Wilcox, Boston. 


"To alcohol and tobacco, can be attributed 
directly the great moral and physical degeneracy 
of the day." — Dr. D. H. Kress, of Chicago, dis- 
coverer of the silver nitrate treatment as a cure 
for the cigarette habit. 

The Physiological Effects. In an article in the 
Popular Science Monthly, Dr. George E. Meylan, 
of Columbia University, gives the results of 
scientific investigations from which we quote the 
following facts: 

In from five to ten minutes after beginning to 
smoke an ordinary cigar, muscular power began 
to diminish, and in an hour, when the cigar was 
burned, it had fallen to about twenty-five per cent 
of its initial value. 

From his observations of 223 college students 
he found that students who use tobacco invari- 
ably rank lower in scholarship than students who 
do not smoke. College students who acquire 
the smoking habit before entering college are 
about eight months older at entrance than the 

All scientists who have studied the physiologi- 
cal effects of tobacco upon man and animals 
are agreed that it has a depressing influence 
upon the heart and circulation ; also, that any- 
thing which interferes with the vigor of the cir- 
culation has a retarding eflfect upon growth. 

All scientists are agreed that the use of tobacco 
in the teen age is injurious. Regarding its use 
by healthy, mature men, Dr. Meylan says there 


is no scientific evidence that it is either beneficial 
or injurious. On certain individuals, and on all 
who use it excessively, there is much evidence 
showing its injurious effects. It has been shown 
conclusively, he says, that the use of tobacco by 
college students is closely associated with idle- 
ness, lack of ambition, lack of appreciation, and 
low scholarship. 

Age when Smokers Acquire the Habit. Of 
115 college student smokers investigated by Dr. 
George L. Meylan at Columbia University, and 
reported in the Popular Science Monthly, Au- 
gust, 1910, the ages when they first learned to 
smoke were as follows : 

Age 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

Number 10 2 2 11 11 18 30 23 16 1 

Tests made by the writer to determine the 
effects of smoking upon blood pressure, showed 
that the action of tobacco was to produce a 
marked and injurious effect upon the heart and 
nervous system. 


I have a statement from our neighborhood 
policeman in which he says our playground has 
been as valuable to the city as ten policemen. 
The former chief of police said that the play- 
ground had materially assisted in controlling the 
rougher boys of the community. One of the 
boys on the playground said to me, "One thing 
you have done, Mr, Bellamy, in opening up this 


playground is to stop the boys shooting craps." 
I am confident that in answer to your first ques- 
tion, the playground and much of our club and 
class work have caused less lying, stealing and 
gambling, and, I am sure, fewer arrests, for this 
work has been a substitute for the lawlessness of 
the street wdiich would have been the life of the 

As to the second question, I have a statement 
from our chief probation officer that our Hiram 
House Camp has been a positive assistance to 
him in decreasing juvenile delinquents and in 
building up a better standard of life. I am sure 
our playground and club work in the House 
deserve just as much force of argument as the 

George A. Bellamy, 
Headworker, The Hiram House, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 


He is a wise young man who daily trains the 
powers of his body, mind, and soul, for he will 
be healthier, happier, thriftier, wiser, longer- 
lived, and, best of all, more spiritual, and so, of 
course, of more use to his fellow man. 

Every young man should make it the chief 
aim of his life to be a "jolly good fellow" in the 
Young Men's Christian Association idea of that 
term ; then earth will be to him a heaven below. 
The ideal Association young man strives to be a 


whole, wholesome, wise, thrifty, and spiritual 
man, one who is always "on deck" and on his 
"tiptoes"' for the right in all his doings — physical, 
mental, and spiritual ; one who daily realizes that 
a little nonsense now and then is as much a Chris- 
tian duty as it is to attend to business in business 
hours, or to his mental work at the proper time, 
or chop or saw wood, or take a sweating hour's 
work every day or so in the gymnasium. 

A young man must try and live a balanced 
life if he wants to do the most good in this life. 
A ball will roll further than an egg because it is 
round; so the well-rounded man in body, mind, 
and soul work will go further in all his doings 
than the man who only develops one or two of 
these powers and allows the others to rot away 
from want of use. The physical and spiritual 
powers are the ones that most men use too little 
for their health's sake. Every live young man 
must train his mind or in a little while he won't 
be worth more than a dollar or two a day and in 
his late middle life he won't be worth that. But 
he is not obliged to train his body and soul, and 
so he often, unwisely, neglects them ; for which 
fact, if he lives long enough, he will be very 
sorry, when it is too late. 

Personally, from over forty-five years of deal- 
ing with young men, I have seen and talked with 
many who have made the great mistake of devel- 
oping their minds at the expense of their bodies 
and souls. 


I want to see Christian young men the ideal 
young men, and I would advise them to study 
their Bibles to see what fine athletic young men 
there were in those far-off days, and how spirit- 
ual they were as well as worldly-wise. I am 
very sorry to say that too many Christian men 
sadly neglect God's best earthly gift to them — 
their bodies — and so set bad examples to the 
young men who come under their influence. 

I wish every person who reads this little talk 
would memorize this hint and say it aloud as he 
does his morning and evening dumb-bell or free- 
hand drill. He-is-a-zy/.f(7-man-who-Jai7y-trains- 

Robert J. Roberts, 


B. Deane Brink 

While in this outline, much emphasis has been 
placed on country life and its influence on char- 
acter, still there is something to be said on the 
other side. 

In the cities we find much that is evil and foul, 
yet we find there represented the greatest philan- 
thropy, the greatest purity, and examples of the 
most aggressive and nol)le courage. 

The conscious direction of one's activities 
toward a given end is more easily accomplished 


in the city because of the agencies by which he 
may surround himself ; such as educational insti- 
tutions, libraries, churches, and the Young Men's 
Christian Association, to say nothing of the mul- 
tiplied opportunities for personal contact with 
individuals and the mutual benefit derived there- 

"He who serves his brother best 
Gets nearer God than all the rest." 


How to Get Strong and How to Stay So. 

Wm. Blaikie $1 . 00 

Health, Strength and Power. D. A. Sar- 
gent 1.75 

Strength and Diet. R. Russell 4 . 40 

Preventable Diseases. Woods Hutchin- 
son 1.50 

Food Values. E. A. Locke 1 . 25 

Athletic Library : A. G. Spalding. 

142 — Physical Training Simplified 25 

149— The Care of the Body 10 

161 — Ten-Minute Exercises for Busy 

Men 10 

185— Health Hints 10 

208 — Physical Education and Hygiene . .25 

213—285 Health Answers 25 

285 — Health — By Muscular Gymnastics . 10 
288 — Indigestion Treated by Gymnas- 
tics 25 



290— Get Well— Keep Well 25 

325 — Twenty Minute Exercises 10 

330 — Physical Training for School and 

Classroom 25 

346 — How to Live One Hundred Years . 10 
Education by Plays and Games. G. E. 

Johnson 90 

How to Play. A. R. Wells 75 

At Home in the Water. G. H. Corsan. 

(New and enlarged edition) 1.00 

The Use of Life. Sir John Lubbock .80 
Making Life Worth While. H. W. 

Fisher 60 

Happiness. Horace Fletcher 1.00 

The Second Mile. H. E. Fosdick 40 

Reproduction and Sexual Hygiene. W. S. 

Hall 90 

From Youth Into Manhood. W. S. Hall .50 
Sex Education Series : 

Life's Beginnings. W. S. Hall 25 

Developing Into Manhood. W. S. 

Hall 25 

Engagement and Marriage. O. G. 

Cocks 25 

Social Evil and Methods of Treatment. 

O. G. Cocks 25 

Village Life in the Holy Land. John D. 

Whiting. (Article in the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine, March, 1914.) 


Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 


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